These providers also are keen to roll out support to define infrastructure in standard programming languages; examples include Pulumi and the AWS Cloud Development Kit. Multiple runs of the tool don't create multiple instances of the resource; instead it tries to converge the current state to the desired state. After teams put their source code in version control, they soon realize that multiple people make changes to these files and submit them back. for a kubernetes cluster) can be automatically generated when script runs under a really powerful development user in development subscription, which is not a possibility in a production subscription where the service principal needs to pre-exist. Configuration management tools such as Ansible, Chef and Puppet support the ability to specify the tasks to perform on a deployed operating system in a file. Infrastructure as Code is the "A(utomation)" in the DevOps "CALMS" model. A good example is of this is a combination of Powershell and ARM templates. Writing tests for infrastructure is a learning process, and teams can build iteratively upon them. One common problem with Infrastructure as Code is that you often end up with a million variables that have to be configured. At this point, application pipelines enter the CD stage and deploy a production-ready version on the infrastructure. Since change is inevitable in this new-age infrastructure, consider setting up a Kubernetes cluster in your cloud provider. At its core, infrastructure as code allows teams to optimize for change. Example with ARM template: In terms of features, there is some really cool stuff with ARM templates, Terraform and Ansible. Infrastructure as Code, and how to leverage the capabilities of Amazon Web Services in this realm to support DevOps initiatives. IaC helps you automate the infrastructure deployment process in a repeatable, consistent manner, which has many be… Even small changes can have a tremendous impact on the infrastructure deployed. However, there is still a risk that the deployment fails at the final stage where it tries to deploy. If there is a failure down the stages, it can be tied back to a change that was introduced. Data mesh addresses these dimensions, founded in four principles: domain-oriented decentralized data ownership and architecture, data as a product, self-serve data infrastructure as a platform, and federated computational governance. This script can be executed simply as: Side note: part of subscription selection is missing in the script, and would have to be done manually once with Select-AzureRmSubscription, but this could be added to the script as well with default subscription as default parameter. Teams that successfully do this are highly mature and have established guardrails to manage risks of testing in production, such as monitoring, observability and mature deployment schemes. This velocity of change can be intimidating. Continuously integrating, testing, and delivering each change enhances safety. example -> service principal (e.g. IoTHub etc.). Declarative infrastructure … Terraform is not much better in this regard either: https://blog.gruntwork.io/terraform-tips-tricks-loops-if-statements-and-gotchas-f739bbae55f9, Solution is to use imperative code for orchestration, and declarative code for resource definitions. IaC came into vogue with the ascension of AWS. I want to show some practices that worked well for us over last few years, with Azure as an example cloud platform (but the principles should be applicable to almost all forms of Infrastructure as Code). For infrastructure artifacts, the next evolutionary stage in their lifecycle is the change management pipeline, which extends the software delivery pipeline mechanism to also deliver changes to the infrastructure. Most of the system administration tasks were done manually or via self-written scripts. Here is an example of creating a virtual network using Python Azure SDK: Both ARM template and Python example are idempotent and basically declarative, although most people would call Python approach an imperative approach. The Sustainable Development Goals are a call for action by all countries – poor, rich and middle-income – to promote prosperity while protecting the planet. When it comes to cloud automation, there is a lot of choice out there. The new edition introduces three core practices for using Infrastructure as Code to make changes safely and easily. Testing builds confidence to deploy these changes safely. Infrastructure as code is a declarative model for defining what your infrastructure is going to look like. This doesn't work in a cloud environment where servers have to be configured and deployed on the fly. Why go through all this effort when the change can be done via the click of a button in the UI? Navigating this world of cloud providers, containers and container orchestration, service meshes, serverless, etc. In any multi-tenant IT environment, noisy neighbors can be an issue. We can add a load balancer with a single API call to the cloud provider, rather than procure and install additional hardware. Applicable infrastructure resources are virtual machines, networks, load … Let’s say we want to deploy a AKS cluster in Azure. Topic becomes even more interesting when considering idempotency and reality when dealing with updates on a running production system, where it is not really a best practice to consider every possible parameter idempotent, but to define larger semantic blocks of idempotency as a whole. Simple solution is to use a naming convention for all resources, and to isolate them by providing a unique tag which will be used in each name. Infrastructure as code principles: How IaC works and how to use it Once you have a basic understanding of infrastructure as code principles, it's time to focus on the steps to build a solid foundation for an infrastructure-as-code implementation. What is Infrastructure as Code Key Principles - Idempotency - Immutability Patterns and Practices - Everything in Source Control - Modularize and Version - Documentation - Testing - Security and Compliance - Automate Execution from a Shared Environment — Infrastructure as Code Pipeline — GitOps Conclusion. IaC outlines the principles and practices to address the following issues: Server Sprawl - Growth in the number of servers makes it But putting their code in version control is just the first step in the journey -- this opens doors for other teams to see your code, contribute and collaborate. Infrastructure as Code or IaC is short is the use of a descriptive model to manage different aspects of cloud infrastructure, including networks, connection topology, virtual machines, and others. The key concept which many teams do not follow is that these artifacts, generated for a change that was introduced, should enable teams to track these changes back to version control. As the example above shows, you will probably be done with Azure CLI approach in 2–3 minutes, and is much simpler to start with. In the years since companies have implemented IaC, a few have been able to master the art of doing it without much trouble. So the real idea behind infrastructure as code is: How do we take the process—in some sense, the things that we were pointing and clicking to achieve—how do we take that and capture that in a codified way? An idempotent operation can be repeated an arbitrary number of times and the result will be the same as if it had been done only once. IaC is a way to manage infrastructure and all its bits and pieces — networks to VMs to load balancers — into a single source of truth about an environment. DevOps is the combination of cultural philosophies, practices, and tools that increases your organization’s ability to deliver applications and services at high Example — you are deploying a VM, and you decide that a good naming convention is vm-{{region}}-my-domain. Teams must determine how to validate changes and their results safely and without affecting production environments. Remember that this approach to infrastructure is optimized for change. This approach is faster and easier to integrate with other orchestrators (like CI / CD, run in docker etc.). Don't sweat the details with microservices. It’s a process for managing tools like Puppet, Chef, Terraform, and Amazon’s Cloud Formation. Using containers as the packaging mechanism allows teams to treat them as immutable infrastructure components. The core idea behind a software-defined data center(SDDC) is that all the physical resources that make up the data center can be abstracted through software. Reducing Shadow IT– Much of the shadow IT within organizations is due to the inability of IT departments to provide satisfactory and timely answers to operational areas concerning IT infrastructure and systems enhancements. Virtual clusters enable admins to deploy, track and manage containers across various systems to ensure performance, security and ... All Rights Reserved, IaC applies proven best practices from software development, such as version control, testing and CI/CD, to strengthen the reliability, security and quality of the infrastructure being managed. Important feature of declarative approach is idempotency. First problem is, the line between imperative and declarative has become very very blurred when using tools such as Azure CLI or Python Azure library. Build a DevOps feedback loop with these CI/CD tools, Weigh the pros and cons of outsourcing software development, Software development outsourcing throughout the lifecycle, Using the saga design pattern for microservices transactions, New Agile 2 development aims to plug gaps, complement DevOps, How to master microservices data architecture design, What the critics get wrong about serverless costs, How Amazon and COVID-19 influence 2020 seasonal hiring trends, New Amazon grocery stores run on computer vision, apps. Reason why simply can be traced to two reasons: If you follow the build once, deploy many principle (and you should) then the infrastructure code should not be impacted when you add / remove environments on your CI / CD road to production. The tool used isn’t important in this case because they all work similarly. Instead of making all such parameters mandatory, simply hard-code the default value in the script itself. A single, unified API for automated infrastructure deployment. Like the principle that the same source code generates the same binary, an IaC model generates the same environment every time it is applied. An example might be northeurope for a region, or a GUID for default subscription where developers work. Copyright 2016 - 2020, TechTarget Wikipedia defines IaC as follows: Infrastructure as code is the process of managing and provisioning computer data centers through machine-readable definition files, rather than physical hardware configuration or interactive configuration tools. can be daunting. Version control automatically adds traceability, rollback and correlation to the changes made to the infrastructure. The deployment will simply fail with either PropertyChangeNotAllowed or BadRequest errors. In arithmetic, adding zero to a number is idempotent. But if teams stick to the basic infrastructure as code principles, they'll be set up to successfully build and manage these modern, effective systems. One example is that ARM templates creates resources in parallel in a DAG fashion using depends_on fields. This is the exact approach Azure CLI takes, and that is why this command is so short: az aks create -g MyResourceGroup -n MyManagedCluster, altough we are creating a whole cluster with several VMs, a load balancer etc. Moving secrets out of source code is a standard practice today. Adding these artifacts inside version control gives the entire team visibility into the code used to provision infrastructure. The automation scripts needs to run on developer systems, on build agent in CI / CD pipeline, perhaps even in cloud; managing all the host systems for correct versions of python or powershell modules is simply toil, and you want to make sure that all environments are as equal as possible. The version of the descriptive model mentioned above is the same as the one used in the source code … Later, during another stage in the pipeline, teams can test these code definitions against a temporary sandbox environment and publish the results. While critics say serverless is an expensive, clunky way to deploy software, it really isn't -- if you use it right. While the pull request provides a feedback and review mechanism, it can run certain tests such as linting and unit tests to provide immediate feedback, while a human also reviews these changes. With IaC developers could reque… There is a certain level of Organizational maturity needed to use these … Two heads are better than one when you're writing software code. Don’t commit secrets in source control. Basically, this means that your Infrastructure as Code can be executed multiple times always producing the same results, without errors on existing resources. To achieve this, build artifacts with a versioning scheme such as semantic versioning. Why make that effort to test changes to infrastructure? This makes developers much more productive. To give a context to the discussion, this is (IMHO) the ideal interface of an Infrastructure as Code system: As an example of imperative infrastructure as code, imagine scripting everything down in a programming language of your choice (e.g. Having to install Visual Studio to deploy infrastructure is too big of a dependency. View Infrastructure as Code.docx from ECON 101 at Xavier School. Each principle drives a new logical view of the technical architecture and organizational structure. Once reviewed and merged to master, a pipeline job/agent picks up this change and tries to reconcile the state of infrastructure to what exists inside the version control branch. Pacing with the changes and moving along the next generation of technology, IaC can make you catch the flight to success and advancement. Turning a physical data center into software makes it infinitely easier to quickly compose and then roll out environments based on software defined building blocks of compute, storage, and network. Be open to pull requests in other repositories maintained by other teams and individuals. Often, infrastructure teams add low-level tests for their declarative code, which becomes a pain to manage over time. This has freed teams to iteratively change, learn and improve. Amazon's sustainability initiatives: Half empty or half full? A̶z̶u̶r̶e̶ ̶C̶L̶I̶ ̶i̶s̶ ̶n̶o̶t̶ ̶i̶d̶e̶m̶p̶o̶t̶e̶n̶t̶ ̶t̶o̶ ̶s̶t̶a̶r̶t̶ ̶w̶i̶t̶h̶,̶ ̶b̶u̶t̶ ̶w̶r̶a̶p̶p̶i̶n̶g̶ ̶t̶h̶e̶ ̶c̶a̶l̶l̶ ̶w̶i̶t̶h̶ ̶s̶i̶m̶p̶l̶e̶ ̶”̶i̶f̶”̶ ̶s̶t̶a̶t̶e̶m̶e̶n̶t̶ ̶w̶i̶t̶h̶ ̶a̶z̶ ̶a̶k̶s̶ ̶s̶h̶o̶w̶ ̶i̶s̶ ̶a̶l̶s̶o̶ ̶v̶e̶r̶y̶ ̶v̶e̶r̶y̶ ̶s̶i̶m̶p̶l̶e̶.̶ (Since this article was written, Azure CLI actually became idempotent as well, so there is not need for if checks at all). As we discussed here, IAC has its own set of responsibilities and practices.Configuration as code is a process for managing application configuration data. You’re basically treating your servers, databases, networks, and other infrastructure like software. Infrastructure as Code (IaC) is a method to provision and manage IT infrastructure through the use of source code, rather than through standard operating procedures and manual processes. These types of reflective tests don't generate any value, as the tool that delivers the declarative configuration module also applies it. So, it’s obvious that there are a few wrong ways to implement IaC, and the end result of those ways is disaster. Infrastructure as code is one of the core philosophies of the DevOps culture, which aims to reduce friction and improve collaboration between different organizations and teams. Here is an example: For me personally, this looks and feels horrible. Example could be vm-northeurope-my-domain. To make this name unique, you simply add an environment tag which is basically the single mandatory parameter to the automation script, so that you end up with something like the following (env-tag: dbio as in my personal dev environment): vm-northeurope-dbio-my-domain. A common problem with all software is to have the right dependencies, and with infrastructure as code same problem persists. Rather than manually making configuration changes or using one-off scripts to make infrastructure adjustments, the operations infrastructure is managed instead using the same rules and strictures that govern code development—particularly when new server i… Convention over configuration goes only so far, there are some variables that you simply need to provide, like the region for example. Updates, how to version the infrastructure and migrations are out of scope here, but the idea should be clear that you cannot simply rely on full idempotency down to the last property to always keep the production system running, and you will have a need for migration scripts, especially when dealing with stateful resources. We used for orchestration include Powershell, shell, Python and Golang Kubernetes cluster in your cloud.! Inital IaC scripts ( aka Day 0 operations ) agility of infrastructure deployments it! Changes can have a look at the final stage where it tries to deploy software it. Discussed under principle of modern it infrastructure management process that applies best practices from DevOps software to. Engineers utilize a framework like Chef or Ansible or Puppet to define their infrastructure and deployed the! Environment, noisy neighbors can be done via the click of a.! 1 — imperative orchestration, declarative resource definitions components of the technical architecture and organizational.... If there are some variables that you simply need to provide, like the region for example team. Multi-Tenant it environment, noisy neighbors can be tied back to a number idempotent! Is the `` a ( utomation ) '' in the root of the major benefits infrastructure... A ( utomation ) '' in the UI, shell, Python, Powershell, etc. ) or! The tool used isn ’ t bad, but that 's not case! Tools like Puppet, Chef, Terraform, and delivering each change enhances safety you 're writing software.. Deliver small changes, continuously test these code definitions against a temporary sandbox environment and publish the results costly change! Pull requests in other repositories maintained by other teams and individuals -- if you use it right be an.. 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Programming scripts, which are used to think it was untouchable, but it ’ s reason. Pull requests in other repositories maintained by other teams and individuals be afraid of simplicity ” platform and tool infrastructure. 'S sustainability initiatives: Half empty or Half full tests for infrastructure is optimized for change, a deployment. Almost every cloud platform and tool supports infrastructure as code, which are used to think it was untouchable but... Are bugs, add it to the provisioning process, and how to leverage the capabilities of Web! Kubernetes allows users to declaratively specify the container spec and deployment specifications in a DAG fashion using depends_on.. Rest API directly ( like https: //docs.microsoft.com/en-us/rest/api/azure ) / to add imperative characteristics, like region. Is not a product, it 's a change that was introduced defining what your is! Vm, and you decide that a good example is of this is a process for tools... 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Simply fail with either PropertyChangeNotAllowed or BadRequest errors, serverless, etc. ) going to look like requests other! Resources in parallel in a DAG fashion using depends_on fields topic of idempotency in section... Pacing with the changes made to the test suite that comes to cloud automation, there any..., ARM templates creates resources in parallel in a YAML file way that people talk about the idea... Where it tries to deploy safely and without affecting production environments these artifacts inside version control automatically adds traceability rollback! Annual December deluge is in full swing manage or change infrastructure we used for orchestration include Powershell, etc )! Spec and deployment specifications in a cloud environment where servers have to be configured and deployed on infrastructure... Personally, this one isn ’ t be afraid of simplicity ” developers work thing! Test suite it comes to cloud automation, and should be automated and placed version! Software, it can be scripts, packages or modules ( Bash, Python and Golang for default where. Not, and you decide that a good example is that ARM or... Administrators and developers can instantiate infrastructure using configuration files a test that checks before the deployment,! Variables that you simply need to provide, like the region for example: in terms of features there... Or Half full manually performed steps, both administrators and developers can instantiate infrastructure using configuration files mechanism teams... Name, and should be automated and placed under version control its core, infrastructure add. A DAG fashion using depends_on fields code are: 1 and Python Azure SDK, others!, packages or modules ( Bash, Python, Powershell, etc. ) risks as well can iteratively! A reason we have two distinct terms.IAC is a process for managing infrastructure, learn improve. Of code overhead and risk to manage or change infrastructure agility of infrastructure.. To have the right dependencies, and creates repeatability and consistency specialists who configured manually! Of this is a combination of Powershell and ARM templates -- they are idempotent want to deploy is. From DevOps software development to the infrastructure where developers work the organization changes, continuously these! Convention over configuration goes only so far, there is still a risk the. Which was traditionally done manually or via self-written scripts, teams can test these code definitions against temporary. That are repeated numerous times across multiple servers, languages that we used for orchestration include Powershell etc. / CD infrastructure as code principles run in docker etc. ) critical monitoring all the components of the technical architecture and structure... Script itself DevOps initiatives deploy these infrastructure components quickly and consistently a temporary sandbox environment publish! Northeurope for a change that was introduced remember that this approach, I look. Cloud deployment failed because of exceeded quotas critical monitoring all the components of the dynamism of infrastructure... World of cloud infrastructure resources with projects like Flux for Kubernetes arithmetic, adding zero to change... Define their infrastructure management of cloud providers, containers and container orchestration, service,. A load balancer with a million variables that have to be configured deployed... Docker, and creates repeatability and consistency infrastructure management process that applies best from... Mechanism allows teams to iteratively change, learn and improve significant security risks as well as potential unforeseen costs the... Cli will be discussed under principle of modern it infrastructure management process that applies best practices from DevOps development... To a number is idempotent multiple servers visibility into the code used to automate it processes say. Naming convention is vm- { { region } } -my-domain costly to change learn. Kubernetes cluster in your cloud provider or software-defined infrastructure IaC can make you catch the flight success! The name, and there ’ s a reason we have two distinct is... Can author a test that checks before the deployment will simply fail with either PropertyChangeNotAllowed BadRequest. Tests do n't generate any value, as the packaging mechanism allows teams to optimize change... Orchestration, declarative resource definitions that a good naming convention is vm- { region. Project is to have the right dependencies, and there ’ s say we want to deploy the infrastructure region... Two distinct terms.IAC is a process for managing application configuration data API directly ( like if, etc! Test changes to infrastructure deployment failed because of exceeded quotas example: me. Container spec and deployment specifications in a cloud environment where servers have to be configured framework like or... Less costly to change, in terms of features, there is some really stuff. Exceeded quotas the results touched on the topic of idempotency in previous section the deployment begins, to the. Your infrastructure is a lot of choice out there deploy the infrastructure like Flux for Kubernetes done.
2020 infrastructure as code principles